Cytotoxic effect of a 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivative compound in human melanoma cells
Melanoma represents the most forceful derm cancer with a high rate of mortality. Although chemotherapy has been commonly used in the treatment of melanoma, drug resistance and side effects of conventional chemotheurapeutics negatively affect the continuity and success the treatment. 1,2,4 triazole derivatives are popular compounds of recent years with anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-viral, anti-proliferative and COVID-19 associated anti-fungal activities. However, studies that revealed the effects of 1,2,4 triazole compounds on melanoma cells are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivative (B9) compound on cytotoxicity and cell cycle using MTT and flow cytometry, respectively and the inhibitory effect on tyrosinase in human melanoma (VMM917) cells using colorimetric assay for melanin content. The compound B9 exhibited a selective cytotoxic effect (4.9-fold) on VMM917 cells compared to normal cells. B9 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase and also decreased the amount of melanin in the cells. The results suggest a novel candidate drug in melanoma therapy. The detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism of this selective cytotoxic effect will provide understanding on the usability of B9 as an alternative chemotherapeutic agent in melanoma.
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