Chemotherapy of apple shoots in vitro as method of viruses eradication


  • N. Romadanova Institute of plant biology and biotechnology
  • A. Tolegen Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
  • T. Koken Almaty Technological University
  • M. Nurmanov Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
  • S. Kushnarenko Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology



The article presents the results on the viruses eradication from in vitro shoots of varieties and clonal rootstocks of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) using chemotherapy and obtaining healthy super-elite planting stocks. Ribavirin at concentrations of 75 and 100 mg/L caused severe in vitro shoot necrosis. Three subcultures on Murashige-Skoog medium with 50 mg/L ribavirin was efficient for elimination of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) from in vitro shots of Malus varieties and clonal rootstocks. A virus-free in vitro collection (42 accessions) was established, which was used for create a cryobank of shoot tips at -196°C and to obtain virus-free planting stocks. The percentage of in vitro shoots rooting ranged from 50% to 90%. The survival rate of in vitro shoots rooted in the soil substrate is more than 90%.

Keywords: apple, chemotherapy, in vitro culture, ribavirin, virus-free planting stocks